2019 Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2):
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses that are characterized by crown-like spikes projecting from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome. They cause a variety of diseases in different species of animals including camels, cattle, cats, and bats and potentially lethal respiratory infections in humans. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) are among the six known human coronaviruses that cause severe respiratory disease in humans. SARS-CoV-2 is the latest coronavirus strain identified in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. Recently researchers have identified the whole genomic sequence of the novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged in China. The genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 is 79 percent similar to the SARS-CoV, ∼ 51.8 percent similar to the MERS-CoV, and ∼ 87 percent similar to other SARS-like Coronaviruses from Chinese bats.

Coronavirus; Replication, Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutic Agents:
Coronaviruses contain a non-segmented, positive-sense RNA genome of ∼30 kb. Coronavirus virus particles contain four main structural proteins. These are the spike (S), membrane (M), envelope (E), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins, all of which are encoded within the 3′ end of the viral genome. The spike glycoprotein mediates the viral entry and is a primary determinant of cell tropism and pathogenesis. It is classified as a class I fusion protein and is responsible for binding to the receptor on the host cells. Additionally, it mediates the fusion of host and viral membranes, a process driven by major conformational changes of the S protein. Because S protein is involved in receptor recognition, as well as virus attachment and entry, it represents one of the most important targets for the development of vaccines and therapeutics. The spike is also the main target of neutralizing antibodies. The recent SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks have stimulated research on CoV viruses and this research has identified a large number of suitable antiviral targets, such as viral proteases, polymerases, and entry proteins. However, significant research is still required to develop drugs that target these processes and can inhibit viral replication.

Products to Support Coronavirus Research:
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