New “Prime Editing” Method Makes Only Single-Stranded DNA Cuts
October 2019  |  Science News
Anew gene editing technique called prime editing, tested in human and mouse cells, rewrites DNA by only cutting a single strand to add, remove, or replace base pairs. The method may allow researchers to edit more types of genetic mutations than existing genome-editing approaches such as CRISPR-Cas9.
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Researchers develop new cheap method to identify aggressive tumors
October 2019  |  Science News
A common feature of cancer cells is alterations in the number of copies in which each chromosome or gene is present in the genome - a phenomenon known as copy number alterations or CNAs. Within the same tumor, cells belonging to different anatomical parts of the tumor may carry different CNAs. Tumors with many CNAs are typically very aggressive and tend to reform more often, even after harsh treatments.
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Scientists unwind mystery behind DNA replication
October 2019  |  Science News
The molecules of life are twisted. But how those familiar strands in DNA's double helix manage to replicate without being tangled up has been hard to decipher. A new perspective from Cornell physicists is helping unravel the mystery.
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Genome Structural Variation Shown to Play Key Role in Altering DNA Methylation
October 2019  |  Science News
The scientists brought together data from whole genome sequencing, gene expression, and DNA methylation from more than 1,400 human cancers. They reported that structural variations consistently altered DNA methylation affecting hundreds of genes, overall reducing the global level of DNA methylation across cancers.
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Dementia Spreads via Connected Brain Networks
October 2019  |  Science News
Scientists used maps of brain connections to predict how brain atrophy would spread in individual patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), adding to growing evidence that the loss of brain cells associated with dementia spreads via the synaptic connections between established brain networks.
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Scientists develop robust method to refine personalized cancer immunotherapy
October 2019  |  Science News
Scientists have developed a new and more accurate method to identify the molecular signs of cancer likely to be presented to helper T cells, which stimulate and orchestrate the immune response to tumors and infectious agents.
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Valium Soothes Best If Its Target Receptor Snuggles with Auxiliary Protein
October 2019  |  Science News
Valium works with a partner, a transmembrane protein that sits beside the neurotransmitter receptor that valium targets. If the protein is absent, valium fails to boost the nerve-calming action of the receptor, the γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor. Researchers say that Shisa7 plays a critical role in the regulation of inhibitory neural circuits and the sedative effects some benzodiazepines have on circuit activity.
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Gene-Editing Breakthrough for Cervical Cancer
October 2019  |  Science News
Researchers have found a way to use gene therapy CRISPR-Cas9 to treat cervical cancer. The first treatment of its kind, it comes after 5 years of research.
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Targeting Tumor-initiating Liver Cancer Cells
October 2019  |  Science News
Researchers have demonstrated a potential method for treating advanced liver cancers like HCC and showed that a class of small molecule drugs that target the JAK/STAT signaling pathway could be used to fight against the disease.
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The story of thalidomide continues-Molecular basis of drug's effects on limb and ear development revealed
October 2019  |  Science News
An international study has unveiled a detailed view of how thalidomide, one of the most notorious drugs ever developed, causes abnormalities in limb and ear development. The findings may contribute to the re-emergence of safe, or non-teratogenic, thalidomide-derived drugs as a treatment for cancer and inflammatory diseases.
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